- Díez Vegas, Francisco Javier

## Persona: Díez Vegas, Francisco Javier

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0000-0001-9855-9248

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Díez Vegas

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Francisco Javier

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Publicación Markov influence diagrams: a graphical tool for cost-effectiveness analysis(Society for Medical Decision Making, 2017-01-11) Yebra, Mar; Bermejo, Iñigo; Palacios Alonso, Miguel Ángel; Arias Calleja, Manuel::virtual::3078::600; Luque Gallego, Manuel::virtual::3079::600; Pérez Martín, Jorge::virtual::3080::600; Díez Vegas, Francisco Javier::virtual::6771::600; Arias Calleja, Manuel; Luque Gallego, Manuel; Pérez Martín, Jorge; Díez Vegas, Francisco Javier; Arias Calleja, Manuel; Luque Gallego, Manuel; Pérez Martín, Jorge; Díez Vegas, Francisco Javier; Arias Calleja, Manuel; Luque Gallego, Manuel; Pérez Martín, Jorge; Díez Vegas, Francisco JavierMás... Markov influence diagrams (MIDs) are a new type of probabilistic graphical models that extend influence diagrams in the same way as Markov decision trees extend decision trees. They have been designed to build state-transition models, mainly in medicine, and perform cost-effectiveness analysis. Using a causal graph that may contain several variables per cycle, MIDs can model various features of the patient without multiplying the number of states; in particular, they can represent the history of the patient without using tunnel states. OpenMarkov, an open-source tool, allows the decision analyst to build and evaluate MIDs—including cost-effectiveness analysis and several types of deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis—with a graphical user interface, without writing any code. This way, MIDs can be used to easily build and evaluate complex models whose implementation as spreadsheets or decision trees would be cumbersome or unfeasible in practice. Furthermore, many problems that previously required discrete event simulation can be solved with MIDs, i.e., within the paradigm of state-transition models, in which many health economists feel more comfortable.Más... Publicación Decision analysis networks(['Decision analysis', 'Decision trees', 'Influence diagrams', 'Probabilistic graphical models', 'Asymmetric decision problems'], 2018-05) Bermejo, Iñigo; Díez Vegas, Francisco Javier; Luque Gallego, ManuelMás... This paper presents decision analysis networks (DANs) as a new type of probabilistic graphical model. Like influence diagrams (IDs), DANs are much more compact and easier to build than decision trees and can represent conditional independencies. In fact, for every ID there is an equivalent symmetric DAN, but DANs can also represent asymmetric problems involving partial orderings of the decisions (order asymmetry), restrictions between the values of the variables (domain asymmetry), and conditional observability (information asymmetry). Symmetric DANs can be evaluated with the same algorithms as IDs. Every asymmetric DAN can be evaluated by converting it into an equivalent decision tree or, much more efficiently, by decomposing it into a tree of symmetric DANs. Given that DANs can solve symmetric problems as easily and as efficiently as IDs, and are more appropriate for asymmetric problems—which include virtually all real-world problems—DANs might replace IDs as the standard type of probabilistic graphical model for decision support and decision analysis. We also argue that DANs compare favorably with other formalisms proposed for asymmetric decision problems. In practice, DANs can be built and evaluated with OpenMarkov, a Java open-source package for probabilistic graphical models.Más... Publicación Evaluation of Markov models with discontinuities(Society for Medical Decision Making, 2019-02-07) Bermejo, Iñigo; Pérez Martín, Jorge; Díez Vegas, Francisco JavierMás... Background. Several methods, such as the half-cycle correction and the life-table method, were developed to attenuate the error introduced in Markov models by the discretization of time. Elbasha and Chhatwal have proposed alternative “corrections” based on numerical integration techniques. They present an example whose results suggest that the trapezoidal rule, which is equivalent to the half-cycle correction, is not as accurate as Simpson’s 1/3 and 3/8 rules. However, they did not take into consideration the impact of discontinuities. Objective. To propose a method for evaluating Markov models with discontinuities. Design. Applying the trapezoidal rule, we derive a method that consists of adjusting the model by setting the cost at each point of discontinuity to the mean of the left and right limits of the cost function. We then take from the literature a model with a cycle length of 1 year and a discontinuity on the cost function and compare our method with other “corrections” using as the gold standard an equivalent model with a cycle length of 1 day. Results. As expected, for this model, the life-table method is more accurate than assuming that transitions occur at the beginning or the end of cycles. The application of numerical integration techniques without taking into account the discontinuity causes large errors. The model with averaged cost values yields very small errors, especially for the trapezoidal and the 1/3 Simpson rules. Conclusion. In the case of discontinuities, we recommend applying the trapezoidal rule on an averaged model because this method has a mathematical justification, and in our empirical evaluation, it was more accurate than the sophisticated 3/8 Simpson rule.Más... Publicación Cost-effectiveness analysis with unordered decisions(Elsevier, 2021-07) Díez Vegas, Francisco Javier; Luque Gallego, Manuel; Arias Calleja, Manuel; Pérez Martín, JorgeMás... Introduction Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is used increasingly in medicine to determine whether the health benefit of an intervention is worth the economic cost. Decision trees, the standard decision modeling technique for non-temporal domains, can only perform CEAs for very small problems. Influence diagrams can model much larger problems, but only when the decisions are totally ordered. Objective To develop a CEA method for problems with unordered or partially ordered decisions, such as finding the optimal sequence of tests for diagnosing a disease. Methods We explain how to model those problems using decision analysis networks (DANs), a new type of probabilistic graphical model, somewhat similar to Bayesian networks and influence diagrams. We present an algorithm for evaluating DANs with two criteria, cost and effectiveness, and perform some experiments to study its computational efficiency. We illustrate the representation framework and the algorithm using a hypothetical example involving two therapies and several tests and then present a DAN for a real-world problem, the mediastinal staging of non-small cell lung cancer. Results The evaluation of a DAN with two criteria, cost and effectiveness, returns a set of intervals for the willingness to pay, separated by incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). The cost, the effectiveness, and the optimal intervention are specific for each interval, i.e., they depend on the willingness to pay. Conclusion Problems involving several unordered decisions can be modeled with DANs and evaluated in a reasonable amount of time. OpenMarkov, an open-source software tool developed by our research group, can be used to build the models and evaluate them using a graphical user interface.Más... Publicación Teaching Probabilistic Graphical Models with OpenMarkov(MDPI, 2022-11-30) Díez Vegas, Francisco Javier; Arias Calleja, Manuel; Pérez Martín, Jorge; Luque Gallego, ManuelMás... OpenMarkov is an open-source software tool for probabilistic graphical models. It has been developed especially for medicine, but has also been used to build applications in other fields and for tuition, in more than 30 countries. In this paper we explain how to use it as a pedagogical tool to teach the main concepts of Bayesian networks and influence diagrams, such as conditional dependence and independence, d-separation, Markov blankets, explaining away, optimal policies, expected utilities, etc., and some inference algorithms: logic sampling, likelihood weighting, and arc reversal. The facilities for learning Bayesian networks interactively can be used to illustrate step by step the performance of the two basic algorithms: search-and-score and PC.Más... Publicación Sum-Product Networks: A Survey(IEEE, 2021-02-25) Sánchez Cauce, Raquel; París Fernández, Iago; Díez Vegas, Francisco JavierMás... A sum-product network (SPN) is a probabilistic model, based on a rooted acyclic directed graph, in which terminal nodes represent probability distributions and non-terminal nodes represent convex sums (weighted averages) and products of probability distributions. They are closely related to probabilistic graphical models, in particular to Bayesian networks with multiple context-specific independencies. Their main advantage is the possibility of building tractable models from data, i.e., models that can perform several inference tasks in time proportional to the number of edges in the graph. They are somewhat similar to neural networks and can address the same kinds of problems, such as image processing and natural language understanding. This paper offers a survey of SPNs, including their definition, the main algorithms for inference and learning from data, several applications, a brief review of software libraries, and a comparison with related models.Más... Publicación OpenMarkov, an Open-Source Tool for Probabilistic Graphical Models(International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 2019) Arias Calleja, Manuel; Pérez Martín, Jorge; Luque Gallego, Manuel; Díez Vegas, Francisco JavierMás... OpenMarkov is a Java open-source tool for creating and evaluating probabilistic graphical models, including Bayesian networks, influence diagrams, and some Markov models. With more than 100,000 lines of code, it offers some features for interactive learning, explanation of reasoning, and cost-effectiveness analysis, which are not available in any other tool. OpenMarkov has been used at universities, research centers, and large companies in more than 30 countries on four continents. Several models, some of them for real-world medical applications, built with OpenMarkov, are publicly available on Internet.Más...